In Gramática By Oksana

Formas subjuntivo en una oración compleja en los esquemas

Hemos tratado de introducir el uso del subjuntivo en una oración simple en forma de una tabla. Ahora trata de hacer un patrón similar patterns de oraciones complejas.

En primer lugar, averiguar cuáles son las diferentes formas del subjuntivo en Inglés. Proponemos asignar cuatro: Subjunctive I Mood Subjunctive Mood II Suppositional Mood Conditional Mood (Cabe señalar que no todos los lingüistas se adhieren a esta clasificación, en diferentes libros de texto sobre la gramática, puede ser diferente).

Imagine el subjuntivo de la mesa.

Formas de subjuntivo The Forms of the Subjunctive Mood

1. Subjunctive I Mood = to Infinitive
Success attend you!
Sí acompaña suerte!
2. Subjunctive Mood II
Present = Past Indefinite
I wish he were present.
Es una lástima que él no estaba presente.
It’s high time you did your flat.
Usted es el momento de limpiar el apartamento.
Past = Past Perfect
I wish she had gone to England last year.
Es una lástima que ella no fue a Inglaterra el año pasado.
3. Suppositional Mood
Present = should + Indefinite Infinitive
I insist that you should work hard.
Les insto a trabajar duro.
Past = should + Perfect Infinitive
(rara vez utilizado!)
It’s important that you should have been present at the meeting.
Es importante que si usted asistió a la reunión.
4. Conditional Mood
Present = would / should + Indefinite Infinitive
If it were warm, we would go to the park.
Si era cálido, nos habríamos ido al parque. (se refiere a la fecha)
Past = would / should + Perfect Infinitive
If I had worked harder last year, I would have got an excellent mark at the exam.
Si he trabajado más en el año, que habría conseguido una puntuación perfecta en el examen.

Ahora considere el uso de estas formas en una oración compleja.

El uso del Subjunctive Mood II Conditional Mood

I. oraciones condicionales Subjunctive II + Conditional

Recuerde que esta fórmula, que nunca será confundido por un momento donde es necesario utilizar:

did should / would do
If smb. smth. smb. smth.
had done should / would have done
  1. If he came 1 earlier, we should go 2 to the cinema — Si hubiera venido antes, nos habríamos ido al cine. (hoy o mañana)

    1Subjunctive II Present
    2Conditional Present

  2. If he had come 1 earlier, we should have gone 2 to the cinema. — to the cinema. — Si hubiera venido antes, nos habríamos ido al cine. (se refiere al pasado, él no vino; en la película y no ir)

    1Subjunctive II Past
    2Conditional Past

Tenga en cuenta que a veces, cuando expresan condiciones irreales unreal condition se pueden usar formas mixtas:

  1. Subjunctive II Present + Conditional Past

    If she weren’t absent minded, she wouldn’t have lost the book — no habría perdido el libro — si no hubiera sido aprobado, no habría perdido el libro. (está, en principio, siempre se dispersa, por lo que el Present)

  2. Subjunctive II Past + Conditional Present

    If he hadn’t missed the seminar, he would be answering well now — él estaría respondiendo bien ahora — Si no hubiera saltado un taller, ahora sería una buena respuesta.

II. Expresiones wish

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. did
I / smb. smth.
had done

I wish she were here. — here. — Es una lástima que ella no está aquí.

I wish / wished she had been there. — there. — Es una lástima que ella no estaba allí.

Si queremos hacer la propuesta más expresivo more emphatic puede utilizar la siguiente fórmula:

wish (-es)
wished
will wish
smb. would do
I / smb. smth.
would have done

I wish you would have studied better last year. — better last year. — ¡Qué lástima que no estudiaste ese año es mejor.

III. En los predicados paranasales predicative clauses y la comparación comparative clauses con as if as though

said
sounded
looks (-ed)
seems (-ed)
speaks (spoke)
feels (felt)
is (was)
as if
as though
(como si)
did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

He feels as if he were falling ill. — falling ill. — Se siente como si se va a enfermar.

She speaks English as though she had lived in England all her life. — in England all her life. — Habla Inglés como si toda su vida en Inglaterra.

IV. Las oraciones subordinadas subjetivas in subject clauses

a). Con as if as though

is not
was not
won’t
(de hecho)
as if
as though
did
It smb. smth.
had done

It is not as if you knew him. — him. — Después de todo, usted no lo conoce.

b). Con expresiones de it’s time it’s about time it’s high time

time (que es el tiempo)
about time (casi la hora)
high time (desde hace mucho tiempo)
smb. did
It is smth.

Tenga en cuenta que estas propuestas sólo se utilizan Subjunctive II Present

It’s high time you knew Grammar well. — Grammar well. — Estás bien pasado el tiempo para conocer la gramática.

V. En otras cláusulas subordinadas in object clauses

had
would
rather did
Smb. smb. smth.
had done

I would rather you went away now. — away now. — Yo preferiría que ahora ha ido.

She would rather you had stayed — Ella preferiría que luego a la izquierda. — Pertenece al pasado.

Uso Suppositional Mood Subjunctive I Mood

I. Las oraciones subordinadas subjetivas in subject clauses

is
was
will be
necessary
important
desirable
requested
demanded
advisable
arranged
ordered
commanded
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. do

It is necessary that you should come a couple of days before the others. — a couple of days before the others. — Es esencial que se llega dos días antes de lo que todos los demás.

is
was
natural
understandable
characteristic
surprising
strange
curious
odd
doubtful
impossible
unpleasant
a pity
a shame
smb. should do
It that smth.
smb. should have done

It is odd (strange) that she should have objected against the proposal. — against the proposal. — Es extraño que ella se opuso a esta propuesta.

Tenga en cuenta que en las oraciones declarativas declarative sentences con los possible probable likely utilizando verbos modales may might can could

It is possible the key may be lost. — lost. — Es posible que la clave se perdió.

Pero la pregunta interrogative y negativo negative ofrece utilizada should + infinitive

It is not possible that he should have guessed it. — it. — Es imposible que supuso.

Is it possible that he should refuse to come? — to come? — ¿Es posible que se negó a venir?

II. En otras cláusulas subordinadas in object clauses

to suggest
to demand
to insist
to order
to arrange
to request
to advise…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

He suggested that we should start the meeting at once. — the meeting at once. — Sugirió que una vez que la reunión.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find
it necessary
important
desirable
advisable…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. do

I believe it desirable that you should read the book. — the book. — Creo que es deseable que haya leído el libro.

to think
to believe
to consider
to find…
it natural
strange
odd
pleasant
unpleasant
possible
impossible
curious…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I believe it natural that he should like his job. — his job. — Creo que es natural que le gusta su trabajo.

They find it curious that he should have refused from the proposal. — from the proposal. — Ellos piensan que es extraño que él rechazó la oferta.

to be astonished
to be sorry
to be pleased…
smb. should do
that smth.
smb. should have done

I’m astonished that she should have said this. — this. — Yo estaba muy sorprendido de que lo dijo.

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy…
smb. should do
lest smb. should have done smth.
smb. do

I’m afraid lest it should be too late. — too late. — Me temo que sea demasiado tarde.

Si la cláusula se introduce Unión that a continuación:

to fear
to worry
to be afraid
to be uneasy…
smb. may, might, can, could do
that smth.
smb. may, might, can, could have done

I’m afraid that he may be ill. — ill. — Me temo que está enfermo.
I was afraid that he might be ill. — ill. — Tenía miedo de que estaba enfermo.

I’m afraid that he may have missed the train. — the train. — Me temo que él perdió el tren.
I was afraid that he might have missed the train. — the train. — Tenía miedo de que se le hizo tarde para el tren.

III. En los predicados paranasales predicative clauses

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement…
is
was
will be
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

The order was that we should leave the room. — the room. — El orden fue el hecho de que salimos de la habitación.

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

Her constant fear is lest there should be something wrong with the child’s health. — something wrong with the child’s health. — Su constante temor es que no pasó nada con la salud de su hijo.

Si la cláusula se introduce Unión that a continuación:

anxiety
fear
worry
is
was
will be
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

Her only fear is that there may be something wrong with her the child’s health. — something wrong with her the child’s health. — Lo único que teme que la salud de su hijo podría tener algo suceda.

IV. En el atributiva paranasales in attributive clauses

order
suggestion
demand
request
recommendation
wish
rule
arrangement…
that smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

He gave an order that nobody should leave the room. — the room. — Él dio órdenes de que nadie salió de la habitación.

fear
worry
lest smb. should do
smth.
smb. should have done

She had a constant fear lest something should happen to her child. — to her child. — Ella siempre tenía miedo de que nada había sucedido a su hijo.

Si la cláusula se introduce Unión that a continuación:

fear
worry
that smb. may, might do
smth.
smb. may, might have done

She had a constant fear that something might happen to her child. — to her child. — Ella siempre tenía miedo de que algo pudiera pasarle a su hijo.

V. El propósito de adventicia in clauses of purpose

to do smth. lest
(no)
smb. should do
smth.
smb. do

Do it at once, lest she should change her mind. — her mind. — Hazlo ahora, para que ella pudiera cambiar de opinión.

Si la cláusula se introduce sindicatos so that that in order that a continuación:

to do smth. so that
that
in order that
smb. may, might, can, could do
may, might, can, could not do
smth.

I shall make you some sandwiches so that you can (may) not be hungry. — be hungry. — Te voy a hacer un sándwich, por lo que no voy a sentir hambre.

He gave me some money that I could buy two magazines. — two magazines. — Él me dio dinero para que yo pudiera comprar dos revistas.

Y ahora le sugiero una pequeña prueba para comprobar los métodos descritos anteriormente el uso del modo subjuntivo:

 

Gramática

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