In Materiales By Oksana

Textiles – textiles en Inglés

It is generally accepted that a textile is a fabric made from fibres (Se considera que el textil — un tejido hecho de .) But Figure 1 shows that the fibres may either be converted into yarn first and then the yarns put together to make fibres, or the fibres can be converted directly into a fabric. ( first and then the yarns put together to make fibres, or the fibres can be converted directly into a fabric. ( la Figura 1 muestra que la fibra se puede convertir primero en el hilado y luego hace de esta tela de hilo o fibra se puede convertir directamente en el tejido.)


Figure 1 ( 1).

  • Textiles — textil.
  • Fibres — fibra.
  • Filament — hilo textil.
  • Staple — (textiles) fibras elementales.
  • Yarn — Hilados.
  • Fabrics — tela.
  • Woven fabric — productos tejidos.
  • Knitted fabric — Jerseys de punto.
  • Braided fabric — tela tejida.
  • Lace fabric — Tela del cordón.
  • Net fabric — tul.
  • Felt fabric — fieltro producto no tejido, sentía.
  • Bonded fibre fabric — pegado tela no tejida.

But not all fibres are suitable for textile purposes because a textile fibre must possess sufficient length fineness strength and flexibility to be suitable for manufacture into fabrics. ( to be suitable for manufacture into fabrics. ( todas las fibras son adecuados para textiles, como fibra textil debe ser suficientemente largo, de alta calidad, resistencia y elasticidad para ser adecuado para fabricar telas.)

The basic structural elements of all textiles woven fabrics knitted and bonded fabrics braids laces ) are staples and filaments (Los principales elementos estructurales de materia textil (telas, tejidos de punto y no tejidos, cintas, cordones) son (fibras textiles básicas) y textiles .) These two terms – staple and filament – represent the two basic forms of textile fibres. ( – represent the two basic forms of textile fibres. ( dos términos — textil (básica), fibra e hilados textiles — son las dos formas principales de fibras textiles.)

Staple is the name given to fibres of limited length used for manufacturing of yarn and textile products. ( and textile products. ( fibras — la fibra de longitud limitada, se utiliza para la fabricación de hilados .) An example of a natural staple fibre is cotton. ( de fibra es el algodón. .) An example of a natural staple fibre is cotton. ( de fibras textiles naturales — algodón).

Filament is the name given to a fibre of continuous length. ( is the name given to a fibre of continuous length. ( hilo — una cadena de .) An example of a natural filament is silk. ( es de seda. .) An example of a natural filament is silk. ( de textiles naturales hilo -. Seda)

All fibres fall into ( fibras se dividen en):

  • natural – obtained from natural sources, such as wool from sheep ( — derivados de fuentes naturales, como la lana de oveja);
  • chemical – produced from various substances by chemical processes ( — a partir de diversas sustancias mediante procesos químicos).

After cleaning and blending , the fibres are spun into yarn (Después de la limpieza y mezclando fibras se retorció en el hilado.) Yarn can consist of either staple fibres , or of filaments put together. ( put together. ( puede consistir en fibras textiles o de fibras textiles unidos .) This is then processed into fabric in a weaving mill or knitting mill (Por otra parte, se convierte en un tejido en un tejido o .) The next stage, called finishing , includes various mechanical and chemical processes for ( etapa, llamada de ajuste, incluye una variedad de procesos mecánicos y químicos para):

  • Removal of defects or foreign matter (eliminación de defectos o basura).
  • Bleaching (blanqueamiento).
  • Removal of moisture (eliminación de la humedad).
  • Dyeing (teñido).
  • Printing (impresión).

The appearance of the fabric may also be improved by napping shearing pressing brushing , and polishing (La apariencia del tejido también puede mejorar la siesta, paño de corte, prensado, limpieza y pulido.)

After finishing, the woven material is ready for delivery to ( para su entrega a (después de terminar tejido listo para la entrega):

  • A manufacturer of textile products such as clothing household linens and bedding upholstery rugs and carpets (Fabricante de productos textiles como ropa, tejidos de lino y pieza artículos para el hogar mercancía, ropa de cama, tapicería, alfombras y mantas).
  • A retailer, who sells it to individuals to make clothes or household articles such as curtains (Minorista, que vende a la gente para la ropa o artículos para el hogar, como cortinas.)

Various techniques and processes are used to produce fibres of different qualities (para la producción de fibras de diferente calidad utilizando diferentes métodos y procesos):

Fibres

  • Acetate (tela de etilo).
  • Cotton (algodón).
  • Linen (sábana).
  • Nylon (Nylon).
  • Polyester (poliéster).
  • Rayon (viscosa, rayón).
  • Silk (seda).
  • Wool (lana).

Techniques and processes

  • Blending (mezcla).
  • Braiding (tejidos).
  • Carding (peinado, burlas).
  • Embroidering (bordado).
  • Fibre processing (fibra de Personal).
  • Knitting (ganchillo).
  • Lace-making (encaje de decisiones, la producción de cordones).
  • Net-making (setevyazanie).
  • Spinning (girar).
  • Weaving (proceso de tejido).

Qualities of fibres

  • Ability to withstand laundering or dry-cleaning (la capacidad de soportar el lavado o limpieza en seco).
  • Absorption (absorción).
  • Crease control (pliegues de control).
  • Elasticity (elasticidad).
  • Fineness (alta calidad).
  • Flexibility (flexibilidad, elasticidad).
  • Length (longitud).
  • Reaction to heat and light (reacción al calor y luz).
  • Shrinking control (control de compresión).
  • Strength (resistencia a la deformación).
  • Wash and wear (que no requiere planchado después del lavado).

Looking after your fabrics is important if you want to make them last. Care labels tell you about ( quieres la tela dura mucho tiempo después de que es necesario seguir las etiquetas de la ropa que te dicen esto.):

Washing (lavandería) Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( se pueden usar a la temperatura apropiada; Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( Indicates that normal (maximum) washing conditions may be used at the appropriate temperature; the number indicates the maximum temperature ( temperatura del lavado)
Bleaching (blanqueamiento) Means that chlorine bleach may be used ( blanqueador de ropa que contiene cloro)
Ironing (planchado) Means that a hot iron may be used ( (puede ser planchada)
Dry-cleaning (seco) Indicates that the garment must be professionally cleaned ( (Indica que la ropa necesitan limpieza profesional)
Tumble drying (secado en un tambor giratorio) Means that the garment may be tumble dried ( (puede ser secado en tambor giratorio)

Y ahora ofrecemos para realizar las siguientes tareas.

  1. Read the information above. Mark the following statements T (true) or F (false). Give reasons.
    1. A textile is a fabric always made from fibres.
    2. All fibres are suitable for textile purposes.
    3. Filament is a fibre of continuous length.
    4. Staple is a fibre of limited length.
    5. Fibres can be spun into yarn or made into fabrics.
  2. Classify the following fabrics into their fibre type – natural (N) or synthetic (S). Then choose from the box below which characteristics best describe each fabtic.

    Fabric Fibre type Characteristics
    Cotton
    Linen
    Nylon
    Polyester
    Silk
    Wool
    a) Good insulator; luxurious, soft to the touch.
    b) Good strength, twice as strong as cotton; crisp to the touch.
    c) Lightweight; easy to wash; resists shrinkage and wrinkling.
    d) Luxurious; thinnest of all natural fibres.
    e) Soft to the touch; absorbent.
    f) Strong; resistant to most chemicals.
  3. Below are the instructions for how to look after your fabrics. Complete the texts using the words below.

    * Dry-cleanable, * drying, * hand-washable, * machine-washable, * shrinkage, * stain, * stretching, * sunlight

    When caring for your fabrics, remember that:

    COTTON
    is easy to care for. It is (a) ______ and dry-cleanable and has good colour retention.

    LINEN
    is twice as strong as cotton and hand-washable or (b) ______.

    SILK
    is (c) _____ or dry-cleanable, but has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to (d) ______.

    NYLON
    is easy to wash, resist (e) ______ and wrinkling, is fast (f) ______, but has poor resistance to continuous sunlight.

    POLYESTER
    is resistant to (g) ______; can be washed or dry-cleaned; is quick drying and wrinkle resistant; because of its low absorbency, (h) ______ removal can be a problem.

Sin embargo, no hemos mencionado otro tipo de tejido — «tejidos inteligentes» intelligent fabrics Te traemos el video sobre este tema:

It’s the fashion show season, and in parallel, Paris has been hosting the largest textile show in the world – “ Premiere Vision ” . Seven hundred and forty-two exhibitors from thirty countries presented their offerings for the “ Autumn – Winter 2007-2008 ” seasons. And this year some special guests – so-called intelligent fabrics – textiles, for example, that have built-in protection against staining.

  • Intelligent fabrics — tela inteligente.
  • Built-in protection against staining — la protección «incorporado» contra las manchas.

If we imagine normal cloth being flat, with nanotechnologies the cloth takes a form a little like mountain. The structure’s invisible, of course, and dirt can’t stick to a material like that. It runs off. So, here I’ll put a bit of ketchup on and I’ll take some water and there you see it’s a white cloth, and you can rinse off the dirt immediately.

  • Flat — plana.
  • Invisible — invisible.
  • Dirt can’t stick to a material — la suciedad no se adhiere al material.
  • To run off — desagüe.
  • To rinse off the dirt — lavar la suciedad /li.

Stain resistant materials, bacteria resistant materials, mosquito resistant materials, materials that can absorb smell or reduce perspiration. Materials that can measure your heart beat, or your breathing pattern. Textiles that are totally impermeable, textiles that are ultra absorbent, cosmetic textiles that moisten the skin, or apply perfume.

  • Stain resistant material — Material gryazestoyky.
  • Bacteria resistant material — material bacteriano.
  • Mosquito resistant materials — cosas anti-mosquitos.
  • Absorb smell — para absorber el olor.
  • Reduce perspiration — reducir la sudoración.
  • Impermeable — sellado, impermeable.
  • Moisten the ski n – hidratar la piel.

The world of intelligent textiles is expanding and a multitude of European research centres are part of it.

Here at Centexbel in Belgium, not far from Liege, scientists are dreaming of the next generation of intelligent or functional textiles. Prototype maker Martin Delgeder’s job is to transform these dreams into reality.

  • Transform into reality — en realidad.

Here we have a pullover that’s entirely knitted. The keyboard is supple. It enables the user to send a range of different commands. It was conceived for handicapped people, to allow them, for example, with a given code to open a garage door, to switch on the television. We’ve also got undergarments that allow you to monitor different body functions: breathing, heartbeat and so on using electrodes that are in direct contact with the body. We can also insert fibre optics into carpet. They are integrated in the production process to make the carpet luminous. They can be used for emergency exit, for example, if there’s a power-cut, or just to create putty patterns within the carpet. We’ve also used fibre optics in knitting. This creates the possibility of luminous knitwear. It can be used for outdoor safety clothing, or it can be stuck on walls and ceilings for decorative effects.

  • Supple — suave y elástica.
  • It was conceived… — que fue diseñado …
  • Handicapped people — las personas con discapacidad.
  • Undergarment — ropa interior.
  • Fibre optics — fibra óptica.
  • Power-cut — corte de energía.
  • Putty — un color gris amarillento.
  • Luminous knitwear — prendas de punto luminoso.

The most complex of these prototypes is probably the textile keyboard which can also function as a simple calculator. Jean Leonard has spent two years working on it. The key, and the interaction of materials that do and don’t conduct electricity.

In addition to the conventional materials, which are electrical insulators we’ve used metallic fibres that do conduct electricity. The principle is that when you don’t apply pressure, there is no contact between two conducting layers. And when you apply pressure, you create a contact between the two layers. In addition to this, there’s a small micro electric component which has been miniaturized as much as possible, so that it disrupts the cloth as little as possible, because the goal is to preserve the characteristics of the textiles: suppleness and comfort.

Suppleness and comfort – those are watchwords for functional and intelligent clothing. Yvette Rogister is in charge of the microbiology lab at the centre. She unlocks the secrets of textiles using this giant microscope. Her research helps to build an understanding how fibres react to the presence of certain nanoparticles. For example, cosmetic nanoparticles that release perfumes into clothes.

  • Electrical insulators — aislante eléctrico.
  • Conventional materials — de materiales basado en técnicas clásicas.
  • To disrupt — de romper.
  • Suppleness — elasticidad.

There are microcapsules which contain a perfume that’s integrated within the fibres that make up the cloth. What we’ve been looking at here, is how uniformly the microcapsules are spread across the cloth. And also we wanted to have an idea of their dimensions. And then, after the material’s being used, we wanted to see how the microcapsules react, they are supposed to explode and release the perfume.

And in fact, what we’ve seen here is that they are indeed microcapsules that have exploded and thus released their perfume.

  • Spread across — dispersa.
  • Dimension — tamaño.
  • To explode — explotar.
  • To release — para liberar, liberar.

At the “ Institut Francias du Textile et de l’habillement ” outside Lyons intelligent textiles are tested for resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids. Engineers work on several Europe-wide projects and also invent their own textiles for the future. Once the concept has been established, the cloth is modeled to a chosen design; and added to a virtual collection of tomorrow’s fashion. The dreams to become a reality, you need a plasma machine like this. Here, in a vacuum, textiles are put in contact with different gases: oxygen, nitrogen, fluoride, or ammonia. In this way researcher Jack Makeone changes the textile properties. Fluorides, for example, make normally absorbent cotton impermeable, while nitrogen makes normally resistant materials absorbent. Nitrogen will separate off and try to impregnate itself in the textiles, so using nitrogen gas you can make a kind of water plasma which will attach itself to the surface. And when you put water next to this, there is a very strong affinity and that makes the material that absorbs very easily, which is good for cleaning materials or for absorbing sweat, or for sticky materials or for printable materials. On the other hand, fluoride gas makes cotton water-resistant, so when it rains, it’s impermeable, but still comfortable.

  • Resistance against heat, flames, tearing, liquids — estabilidad con respecto al calor, fuego, protéjase con líquido.
  • Oxygen — oxígeno.
  • Nitrogen — nitrógeno.
  • Fluoride — fluoruro.
  • Ammonia — amoníaco.
  • To separate off — separarse.
  • To impregnate — para saturar, llenar.
  • Affinity — similitud.

In these workshops a European programme to make threads of the future is being researched. Christophe Angelloz is developing polypropylene thread that resists high temperatures. The polypropylene is mixed with chemical microparticles whose composition is a commercial secret. The mixture is pummelled, melted, stretched and woven into yarn.

It’s all polypropylene, but by changing the manufacturing conditions like the extrusion temperature, the weaving speed, the stretching tension you can optimize the thread production.

Threads with like others made at the centre will now undergo testing to see if they might be useful in the creation of the new intelligent textiles of the future.

  • Workshop — tienda.
  • Polypropylene thread — el filamento de polipropileno.
  • To pummel — procesamiento, embistiendo.
  • To melt — a derretirse.
  • To stretch — tirando.
  • Extrusion temperature — moldeo de fibra sintética temperatura.

 

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